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FALSESPIREA, URAL (Sorbaria sorbifolia) L-18

This is a coarse, multi-stemmed shrub with alternate, pinnate, and compound 8-12” long leaves. The leaves are tinged red when unfolding then change to a deep green. There is no fall color. The young stems are downy, green or pink, and turn gray brown with age. In June or July, white flowers borne in large, fleecy 4-10” wide panicles cover the shrub. This would be an effective plant for group plantings as it freely suckers and spreads. It is one of the first shrubs to leaf out in spring. Native: Northern Asia form the Ural Mountains to Japan.

FILBERT, EUROPEAN (HAZELNUT)(Corylus avellana) H-7,H-12,J-21

This shrub or small tree grows from 12-20’ in height and has dark-green leaves that change to a soft yellow in fall. The male catkins flower in late winter. The female flowers are inconspicuous. This species is prized for its nut production. In the fall, the empty seed pods will fall, leaving the productive nuts on the tree until harvest. The shrub has many shoots from the root area. Native: Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.

FIR, GREEK (Abies cephalonica) O-2

This large, handsome tree has pale, smooth, young shoots and resinous winter buds. The rigid, sharp-pointed needles are shiny green with white undersides. The needles radiate all around the branchlets. Cylindrical, erect cones have scales which fall from the main stem at maturity. Firs are not well-suited for city locations because they do not tolerate air pollution. This is one of the best firs for growing in our alkaline soils. Native: Mountains of Greece.

FIR, SPANISH (Abies pinsapo) K-2

This fir is easily recognized by its short, rigid, dark-green needles which radiate from all sides, densely clothing the branchlets. Winter buds are thinly resinous. Juvenile bark is smooth, becoming grooved and flaky later. Cylindrical cones are purplish brown when young. This species name is short for “soap pine” -- a kind of soap made when the twigs are crushed in water. Native: Mountains of southern Spain.

FIRETHORN, SCARLET (Pyracantha coccinea) A-17

This semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub is often used as a hedge. It grows to 18’ high. The simple leaves are alternate with a lustrous, dark-green color. The compound flowers are whitish and showy. It produces an abundance of bright, orange-red pomes that stay on until winter. Native: Italy.

FLOWERING QUINCE, COMMON (Chaenomeles speciosa) L-5

A rounded shrub of 6-10’ with brownish, spiny branches. The new leaf color is bronzy red changing to a glossy green with no significant fall color change. The beautiful, showy spring flowers vary in color from scarlet to white. The 2-2 1/2” apple-shaped fruit is yellowish green with a pink blush. Fruits are bitter when eaten raw, but can be used for jellies and preserves when ripened in October. Native: China.

FORSYTHIA, BORDER (Forsythia x intermedia ‘Spring Glory’) L-20

This 6’ deciduous shrub has opposite, toothed, green leaves in the summer that turn a brighter green to yellow green in the fall. The branches are densely flowered with 2” wide, sulfur-yellow flowers which gives a spectacular show in early spring. It is not conducive to excessive pruning and is fragile in hard frost.

FRINGE TREE, CHINESE (Chionanthus retusus) M-5

The large, round, multi-stemmed shrub reaches 10’, but can be grown as a small tree reaching 30-40’. The gray-brown bark may be peeling or deeply ridged which adds interest in winter. The showy flowers are snow white and appear at the very end of the new shoots. Leaves change from green to soft yellow in fall. Fruit is dark blue, ripening in September through October. Native: China and Taiwan.

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